A compilation of scientific evidence suggests that the consumption of three to four cups of coffee per day per person could have a positive effect in reducing deaths from cardiovascular causes.
There is a smell, a warm aroma that summons people around a table, a conversation, a game of chess. It is the perfume that emanates from a cup of coffee, one of the three most consumed beverages in the world along with water and tea, and whose origin comes from northern Ethiopia, in Africa, during the 15th century, when the ancestral Oromo community He took the red fruits of a bush called coffee tree as an energizer for his war expeditions.
With the passage of time and the travels of Arab merchants around the world during the 16th and 17th centuries, this brown grain exposed to the sun became one of the most exported and imported agricultural products on the planet due to its taste, smell and texture, but also to the high energy levels provided by caffeine –a psychoactive of this drink-. However, although this precious liquid has a symbolic and cultural value inserted in the food diet of humanity, there are various medical opinions that have emerged during the last 50 years regarding the negative and positive effects of its consumption.
In order to investigate the growing publication of scientific articles that dispute the recommendations on drinking coffee and to understand the tendency of the medical union not to suggest this drink to their patients.
Currently, publications in scientific journals related to the effects of coffee on public health are varied and address various topics such as metabolic diseases, diabetes mellitus, cancer, dementia, Parkinson’s, among others. Therefore, the starting point of this group of researchers consisted in delimiting the field of study to the effects of this drink on the cardiovascular health of people, in order to collect scientific data on the subject and propose a nutritional recommendation on the estimated dose of coffee fruit for global consumption through published evidence.
The first step to collect the data consisted of making a systematic search and selection of the world scientific literature with the words “coffee” and “cardiovascular death”, through the databases Medline, EMBASE, LILACS and the Cochrane organization, applying A rigorous review process of academic publications, in a team of two researchers, independently, selected those of higher quality.
The result of this exercise: 181 initial articles, of which five meta-analyzes were selected that collectively collect 41 studies; all applied to more than two million healthy people worldwide, over 18 years of age, with chronic, habitual and moderate coffee consumption practices, and who were analyzed for a period of approximately 15 years.
Organizing this information was time consuming for the researchers. For this reason, they dedicated themselves to extracting and tabulating the data of the populations analyzed in each of the articles, to finding the state of health among those who consumed coffee on a regular basis (according to the number of cups consumed per day) and those who did not. , and to quantify those who were at risk of dying or died from cardiovascular causes.
To the surprise of the academics, the conclusion was novel because synthesizing these data allowed them to find that those who consume three to four cups of coffee a day are 18% less likely to die from cardiovascular causes compared to those who drink it occasionally or they do not, and a 17% less probability of dying from general causes in the same case.
Chlorogenic acid is an antioxidant characteristic of coffee and has protective effects; in the long term, it could improve some functions in terms of circulation and avoid fatal cardiovascular outcomes.
Coffee, a drink of international stature
During the last years, the production and export of this grain worldwide has increased. Colombia, according to the National Federation of Coffee Growers, generated 14.8 million bags of 60 kilos of green coffee during 2019; that is, about 9% more than in the previous year. And although this is excellent news for the union and for the diversification of the consumption of the arabic variety worldwide, the need arises to find common ground about the information that circulates in the nutritional guides of producing countries and consumers such where the demand indicators for this drink are on the rise.
With this work we hope that the suggested dose of between three and four cups of coffee per day per person is a practical recommendation for a drink that is part of the consumption of the population worldwide and therefore has a potential impact on health global public.